Cities bouncing forward: A multiple case study on the balance of the resilience dimensions reflected by the policy arrangementsin Jakarta and Rotterdam

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Cities are major contributors to the accelerating climate change on the other hand also most vulnerable to its effects, especially delta cities. Jakarta and Rotterdam are two of these delta cities facing a diversity of climate change challenges. In order to ensure that urban areas can cope with climate change challenges, there is an urgent need to build social-ecological resilience. The resilience balance in Jakarta bends towards a dominance of the adaptability dimension. The centre of attention of climate hazards are efforts made to reduce the consequences. This focus has arisen out of necessity and a trade-off with the robustness. The strong capacity to adapt and recover is facilitated by the Jakartans themselves. Simultaneously, plans are currently made to enhance the transformability and relocate the capital city. Rotterdam shows the opposite and the resilience balance bends towards the robustness dimension. Due to history, the Dutch focus on a robust system of flood defences which is fully accounted for by the government. The dominance of the robustness creates trade-offs regarding the adaptability and transformability dimensions in which other actors do have a significant role being experienced as additional or as a back-up plan towards the robust system.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen