To What Extent Do the Leadership Style, Autonomy, Team Cohesion and Role Ambiguity Influence the Well-being of Employees in (Forced) Remote Work Situations Due to COVID-19?

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This study explores the impact of job demands and job resources on the self-reported well-being of employees in a remote work setting. It will do so through application of the JD-R model. By this it fills the knowledge gap of whether the JD-R model upholds – and explores which factors are most significantly related to the self-reported well-being (work engagement and strain) – in a largescale forced remote working situation. Therefore, it was investigated whether role ambiguity, autonomy and team cohesion mediate the relationship between remote work and well-being. Furthermore, it is researched whether leader-member exchange moder-ates the relationship of remote work and well-being. Lastly, two open questions investigated what employees already changed and which factors still needs attention in the future. In total 441 employees of a representative sample at the university fully filled in the online question-naire. Seven scales were used to measure all variables, the reliability was between .76 and .93. Role ambiguity, autonomy, team cohesion and LMX do not have any impact on the relationship of remote work and well-being. However, there is a link between the factors role ambiguity, autonomy, team cohesion, LMX and strain. The qualitative analysis stresses the importance of social interaction to increase the perceived well-being and high workload as determinant of lower well-being. Further research is needed to get fully insight into the relationship of remote work and the well-being of the employees and which factors are crucial to take into account, (e.g. multilevel approach, hybrid working and the social exchange theory). Key words: COVID-19, remote work, well-being, role ambiguity, autonomy, team cohesion, leader-member exchange
Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen