Parking Policies: An Exploration of the Impact of Parking Permit Fees on Citizens’ Mobility across Income Groups

Thumbnail Image
Issue Date
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
This master's thesis investigates the previously unexplored relationship between parking permit fees and mobility patterns among income groups in Utrecht-city, the Netherlands. Utrecht-city is recognized as a leading city in car-sharing adoption. Employing a Fixed Effects Model (FEM) with two-period panel data, this study examines the impact of parking permit fees on private car ownership, car-sharing adoption, and utility derived from car mobility. The findings demonstrate a negative relationship between parking permit fees and private car ownership, indicating that higher fees incentivize individuals to explore alternative transportation options. Additionally, the analysis reveals a negative relationship between parking fees and utility from car mobility, suggesting that increased fees have a detrimental association with citizens' evaluation of mobility. Concerning social inclusion, this research identifies a differential relationship between parking permit fees and utility derived from car mobility across income groups. The insights from this study can inform policymakers in designing effective policies that take into account the varying relationships between parking permit fees, the utility derived from mobility, and the pricing mechanism of car-sharing services. Ultimately, these policy considerations aim to foster equitable mobility for citizens across income groups.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen