ob crafting among nurses How job demands and resources can be barriers and facilitators to job crafting.

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Due to the increased complexity of professional jobs, the Covid-19 pandemic and the staffing shortage in healthcare, the work structures and work methods of nurses have dramatically altered and the work has become more uncertain and complex. A technique used to keep nurses motivated to work in an uncertain and dynamic work environment is job crafting. Job crafting can be increased by balancing the job demands and job resources with the personal abilities and needs of nurses. This qualitative research aims to discover how job demands and resources can be barriers and facilitators to job crafting among nurses. Existing barriers and facilitators from the literature and new barriers and facilitators mentioned within twelve semi-structured interviews with nurses are analysed using a template analysis. The analysis revealed multiple similarities between the literature and the interviews, however, there are some differences between them. It can be concluded that nurses do want to engage in job crafting at work, yet, there are always factors that can hinder this process. At first, job demands that are barriers to job crafting are task interdependence, too challenging job demands, legal obligations, working in spare time, work pressure and lack of interest. Job demands that function as facilitators to job crafting are an adequate level of job demands, stress or a high workload and interesting new projects. Second, job resources that are barriers to job crafting are conflicts between colleagues, lack of organizational support, lack of social support, lack of social skills, lack of job resources, and lack of job knowledge and experience. Job resources that are facilitators to job crafting are job autonomy, self-efficacy, social skills, motivating potential for employees, meaningful work, social support, job satisfaction and organizational support. In the end, this study extends the existing knowledge by providing an overview of the factors that will increase or hinder job crafting among nurses.
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