Framing of news sports articles in online Dutch and Spanish newspapers.

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This research studies the textual and contextual differences in framing between Spain and the Netherlands in sports news articles. The core of the study is a textual analysis in which ten Dutch articles from NOS and ten Spanish articles from El País have been coded. The textual analysis was focusing on three main news elements, namely actors, actions, and circumstances. Each of these main news elements was in turn analyzed on three different aspects: occurrence, valence, and prominence. The textual analysis was followed by a contextual analysis in which the results were tried to be linked to the cultural differences in dimensions of Spain and the Netherlands. Several results were found from both the textual and the contextual analysis. A key finding was that, despite that Spain is a collectivistic culture, the main focus of Spanish journalists was to write about individuals with respect to the actors. A second main finding may appear to relate to the cultural dimension of high- and low-context culture. The data analysis shows that Dutch journalists tend to use more direct language, whereas Spanish journalists use more metaphors and adjectives to describe the actors, actions, and circumstances. This seems to align with the Dutch low-context culture in which directness and efficiency is central.
Faculteit der Letteren