Russian anti-terror policy : the effects of 9-11, the "global war on terror" and the collective security system
Since the attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11), a new security challenge has arisen: no longer are the nations solely threatened by inter-state conflicts over territory and global dominance. Due to globalization, the widening gap between various cultures, the ending of the Cold War and the consequent growing threat of the acquisition of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) and other farreaching changes in the international arena, the threats of terrorism and intra-state warfare have increased, and so has their threat to the global security. For some, these changes are intertwined with the attacks of 9/11. By many it is believed that the world has changed since then. New global threat assessments were made by the nations and its collective security system, new enemies created, and new wars waged. Soon, a global war was proclaimed against the responsible terrorists and the “axis of evil”. It is an understatement to say that the attacks of 9/11 had great geographical and political implications for the international system. The “global war on terror” was accompanied by the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, the States that were aiding and abetting the terrorists, or as Bush would recall numerous times, the “axis of evil”. All of this took place under the veil of the newly developed concept of “humanitarian intervention”. The once highly acclaimed globalization underwent some limitations regarding the movement of goods and persons due to the development of international terrorism globalization made place for the “global war on terror”. On the other hand, the Bush administration set forth an aggressive direction in its foreign policy, by launching pre-emptive wars and by violating the international norms and treaties. The attacks of 9/11 and the proclamation of the “global war on terror” saw the revival of the idea of the collective security system and the construction of a new world enemy to the Western society, very much in line with the Cold war era. The world was changing in a quick pace, but was this also evident for one of the most important allies in the “global war on terror”, the Russian Federation? This research set outs to find an answer to my main question, namely whether an actual change did occur in the Russian anti-terrorism policy after the attacks of 11 September 2001, in the light of the “global war on terror” and the “new” collective security system? My thesis has concentrated on elaborating this question by conducting an extensive literary research and an analysis of speeches, public documents, national laws and security concepts in order to understand how the attacks of 9/11, the consequent proclamation of the “global war on terror” and the changes in the collective security system have had any influence on the Russian Federation and specifically on the Russian anti-terror policy.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen