Environmental Justice in Greening the Hofbogen: Urban greening and environmental justice in Rotterdam for the Hofbogenpark project
Urban greening has become a main element of climate adaptation in cities since it can improve the health, well-being of citizens and the liveability of urban areas. Environmental justice has three main (linked) elements: recognition justice, procedural justice and distributional justice. In urban greening, there are several concerns from a justice perspective such as the unfair distribution of the benefits and burdens, non-recognition of different perspectives and values, the exclusion and participation of marginalized groups and green gentrification. The design of the Hofbogenpark in Rotterdam is looked at through the lens of environmental justice. This research shows that several environmental concerns were taken into account. However, traditionally marginalised groups and entrepreneurs were poorly involved. The outcome of the design suggests that people could express their influence and concrete changes were made. Process-related elements such as the management of expectations lacked in some perspectives and could be improved. The park will provide in many benefits for various (local) actors and nature, which is wished for a long time. Expected burdens are divided among relevant actors and require solid park management. The park will be accessible to most people and meet preferences and needs of future users.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen