Case Study: Industrial Symbiosis

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The process of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) has been a topic of interest among researchers for the last three decades. While case studies (i.e. Kalundborg and Ulsan) provide information with regard to the process of IS, a widely accepted standard framework for designing such processes, has not yet occurred. The research of Baldassarre et al. (2019) provides a first attempt in describing the process of designing an IS cluster. Based on an extensive literature review, the framework combines the perspectives of the Circular Economy (CE) and Industrial Ecology (IE), into one framework. This thesis poses the research question: “How does the process of industrial symbiosis take place in business areas?”. By using the suggested framework as a conceptual lens, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the process of IS. The process of IS is captured by performing four case studies, based on multiple interviews. The findings in this thesis are based on an extensive and comparative analysis of multiple interviews. This thesis advocates an implementation of a Triple Helix structure, the implementation of a nationwide organization that represents business areas, and a leading role for the government with regard to shaping the environment of the new economy.
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