how just are civil society nature initiatives? Research on (spatial) injustice of Tiny Forests in the Netherlands.
While there is much attention to the positive aspects of civil society initiatives in nature, less attention is paid to more negative aspects. Terms like exclusion and inequality are related to the concept of (spatial) justice. This research aimed to discover what justice means for involved citizens in the Tiny Forest initiative and to find points of interest for municipalities to decrease injustice in nature initiatives. Triangulation of different methods, including a survey, spatial analysis, and two interviews, made (more) reliable conclusions possible. Results show that most citizens and the municipality officials may not be (fully) aware of justice issues. Furthermore, mostly more highly educated, middle-aged Dutch citizens are involved. The spatial analysis preliminary concludes that Tiny Forests are more often located in neighborhoods with lower incomes, more non-Western migrants, and younger citizens. Additionally, municipalities prefer to allocate Tiny Forests in areas with less (variety of) green spaces. In the end, three recommendations are made: conversate about justice, encourage citizens with less strong positions, and be aware of the local context. Future research on justice in nature initiatives is required to not only find how to make these initiatives more just but also to raise awareness among people involved.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen