Urban containment policies in European regions : The case studies of Randstad and Greater London
Urban sprawl is a phenomenon which refers to the spread of urban areas and creates the need for land use changes. As a result, rural areas are converted into residential areas. Apparently, this conversion has significant impacts on the environment and on the quality of life. In recent decades, the "urban sprawl" concerns the countries around the world. The countries, which are being developed rapidly, create a wide range of policy instruments for the limitation of urban sprawl and for achievement of sustainable development. But, while the countries have begun to implement policies in order to limit the urban sprawl of their cities, these policies in some occasions are and in some other occasions are not effective and efficient and other times they avoid to be implemented at all. Therefore, there are some factors which affect the implementation, the effectiveness and the efficiency of those policies. This research examines these factors (from 1990 until 2010) through the study of two European regions, the region of Randstad in The Netherlands and the region of Greater London in Great Britain. The present research shows that for both regions the role of local authorities in Green Belt and Green Heart area is crucial in implementation, effectiveness and efficiency of urban containment policies. In addition, the gap between policy and practice due to the fact that the national government decided the policy without the participation of other stakeholders and the role of national government in protection or not of Green Belt from urban development are two other main factors for regions Randstad and Greater London respectively.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen