Evaluating and Adapting the Precious Memories Intervention for Nursing Home Residents with Depressive Symptoms

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Approximately 17-52% of nursing home residents suffers from depressive symptoms, illustrating the need for adequate treatment. Precious Memories (PM) is an intervention that aims to decrease depressive symptoms in this population by training memory-specificity. Although PM has been implemented in multiple nursing homes in the Netherlands, it was often not applied when advised. Therefore, this research aimed to (1) evaluate PM’s implementation, and to (2) adapt the intervention accordingly. Specifically, PM was evaluated and adapted systematically following four steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol: Process evaluation through semi-structured interviews with psychologists (n = 11) and clients (n = 3); identification of PM’s main need based on interviews and focus groups (n = 3); specification of performance objectives and their determinants; and selection of theory-based methods and applications. The process evaluation results showed that although PM was generally considered relevant, it was only applied in less than half of indicated cases—mainly because of time constraints, and completed in only one-third of started cases—mainly because of clients’ cognitive impairments. The needs assessment identified a need to maintain PM’s effects. Therefore, maintenance strategies were developed aiming to maintain clients’ well-being by stimulating clients’ positive contact with others. Next, behaviors necessary to perform the maintenance strategies were specified. The following determinants of these behaviors were selected: knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. The determinants were addressed through behavior change methods and applications. Future research must focus on improving PM’s implementation and on evaluating the effects and implementation of its maintenance strategies. Keywords: depressive symptoms, nursing home, Precious Memories, Intervention Mapping, maintenance strategies
Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen