REDD+ and Equity: How, why, what and for whom? Framing REDD+ across multiple levels of governance in terms of Equity

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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is increasingly recognised as an important strategy in order to mitigate global climate change. However, its design and implementation have raised concerns about the implications REDD+ will have for equity. This thesis aims to provide more insights on how, why, what and for whom the concept of equity is shaped in a multi-level governance program, such as REDD+, which takes place at various levels of governance with different stakeholders, that all differ in their conceptions on both REDD+ and equity. The study includes the Bolsa Floresta Program in Brazil as specific case, in order to understand how equity is framed on the ground and how this may be explained through and may differ from international and national understandings of equity. The analysis, most importantly, has identified a critical indirect relation between the various levels of governance, which takes place under the disguise of a suggested marginal direct relation, that may impact equity framing processes and preclude equity promises and safeguards at the local level. The study concludes that equity in REDD+ may be extensively considered in written procedures, but that true realisation remains a very complicated matter.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen