Wielding the Temporal Sword

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The Lateran Treaty of 1929 between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church constitutes the creation of Vatican City State. This thesis gives an account of the negotiations leading up to the signing of the Treaty. The creation of the City State draws our attention to two specific concepts: statehood and the separation of Church and state. The Catholic perspective on these concepts is presented and compared to other dominant theories of the concepts The Catholic perception of statehood in the early 20th century was based on the work of Fr. Taparelli, a Jesuit scholar who was heavily inspired by Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). The thesis concludes that there is a discrepancy between this theoretical conception of statehood, and the creation of Vatican City State. This can be explained by the fact that obtaining statehood was instrumental to the Holy See’s ambition of becoming sovereign. Catholic doctrine on the relation between Church and state has always rejected the idea of a full separation. Papal teachings have traditionally promoted a differentiation between a spiritual and temporal sphere of power, each supreme in its own domain, but cooperating in harmony. Depending on one´s interpretation, the creation of Vatican City is in line with this doctrine. Key words:
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