The European Hydrogen Transition: An exploration of hydrogen ecosystems in the EU

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The energy transition is one of the main challenges in Europe in becoming climate neutral by the year 2050. Green hydrogen is addressed in the EU as one of the key ingredients to making this transition a success. This is because hydrogen can potentially make the transport, industry and building sectors more sustainable and can serve as energy storage. However, hydrogen had multiple interest peaks, but it never took off because of various barriers. Therefore, this research explored the development of hydrogen ecosystems in the regions North Jutland, Lower Saxony and Brittany. The results show that the Lower Saxony and North Jutland cases are developing faster than the Brittany case. This relates to multiple causes, such as the high availability of wind in North Jutland and the presence of large industries in Lower Saxony. On the other hand, in Brittany, there is a lack of renewable energy and large industries. Nevertheless, the Brittany case shows interesting hydrogen development using a more bottom-up approach. Overall, the hydrogen development is influenced by different barriers presented in this research. These barriers make hydrogen development, therefore, a complex one. To overcome this, the interaction and collaboration between the actors in the ecosystem are vital.
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