The Eroding Fortress: A Study of the Autoimmune Disease of Fortress Europe and Externalities of Externalization within the EU’s North African Extremities: the Borderscapes of Spanish Ceuta and Melilla

Thumbnail Image
Issue Date
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Despite hundreds of millions of euros being spent annually on migration control in and around the EU’s borders, thousands of people are able to irregularly enter EU-territory annually. In recent years, numerous scholars have addressed key political, legal and humanitarian issues surrounding EU migration management, especially in regard to the (in)effectiveness of the EU’s strategies and tactics. Van Houtum and Bueno Lacy (2020) have developed an autoimmune theory which might prove capable of encapsulating these academic debates regarding the ineffectiveness and counterproductivity of ‘Fortress Europe’. Their analysis has been conducted systematically along the lines of a border control system they have called the paper-, iron- and camp borders. In this paper, their theory will be tested by applying it within a localised case-study approach to Fortress Europe: an analysis of EU migration management in the borderspaces of Spanish Ceuta and Melilla. Additionally, this paper argues that the proposed paper-, iron- and camp border system of Fortress Europe does not seem to include the fact that certain EU border areas are atypical in the way they function in relation to grander Fortress Europe. The concept of limboscapes (Ferrer-Gallardo & Albet-Mas, 2016) has been applied to, and further developed within, this research.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen