Made in Germany, sold in the Netherlands: COO-markers, brand familiarity and the effectiveness of advertisements.

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Several studies have already looked into the effects of COO markers, but with mixed results. Some argue that markers do not define purchasing behaviours, whereas others argue that markers influence product evaluations. There are other aspects that may influence the effects of COO markers, such as brand familiarity, however the moderating effects remain unclear. This study aimed to assess to what extent the effectiveness of advertisements is influenced by brand familiarity and the number of COO-markers in the advertisement. A total of 16 advertisements differing in number of COO markers, product category and brand familiarity were rated by Dutch consumers. Effectiveness was measured in terms of attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention. Results showed no significant effects of either brand familiarity or number of markers for the clothing advertisements. For chips, number of markers seemed to only have an influence on attitude towards the ad. Also, the familiar chips brand was liked more than the unfamiliar. For neither product category significant interaction effects were found. Thus, the results seem to suggest that markers do not increase the effectiveness of advertisements, as significant results were only found for chips and only for attitude towards the advertisement. Interestingly, familiarity also only seemed relevant for chips advertisements. Future research should examine these differences between product categories further and examine the effects of other combinations of COO markers. The results also imply that perhaps research can be done into the confounding effects of other extrinsic cues.
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