What Role Does the Form of Globalization Play in the Rise of Populism?
Since the 1980s, the success of populist parties and leaders has become ever more prevalent, with their ideas gradually moving towards the mainstream of politics. In academic literature, economic globalization is cited as one of the most prevailing explanations for the rise of populism. Economic globalization manifests in three forms, namely: international trade, capital mobility, and labour migration. The composition of these forms has changed throughout the last couple of decades, characterized as four ‘waves of globalization’, all of which are indicated by distinctive time periods. This thesis examines whether the changing form of globalization has affected the rise of populism within the European Union (EU). A panel data analysis will be conducted to measure whether each wave of globalization has affected the rise of populism in the EU, starting from 1970 to 2019. Data was retrieved from the KOF Globalization Index and a manual dataset was created to indicate votes for populists. The results show that economic globalization appears to have no effect on populist voting in the EU from 1970 to 2019. Only international trade affects populist voting in the EU from 1970 to 2019.
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