Waardecreatie in het publieke domein

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In this thesis an effort is made to determine the public value of culture. In this ab- stract the term “culture” includes the more general expressions of culture as well as the so-called higher arts. To place the determination of the public value of culture into perspective, it is compared to the public value of nature. To enable us to do so, a range of perspectives on public value in general and specifically on the public value of culture and nature, are collected in this thesis. The values found in literature, are collected in a values-based scorecard, which functions as a tool. The values in this scorecard are compared with the criteria by which the current Dutch government legitimizes its culture and nature policies. This tool enables us to analyze objectively to what extent these governmental policies are based upon public values and public value categories. As a result of this research, it has become evident that the value of culture and the value of nature are in many ways comparable. Furthermore, it has become clear that culture and nature both add value to the public sphere. The public values of both culture and nature can be distinguished into two kinds of values, namely the intrin- sic values and the extrinsic values. Intrinsic values are values that are created in aesthetic experiences, which an individual can have with a cultural or natural prod- uct or activity, for example through enjoyment, imagination or alienation. On the other side there are extrinsic values, which have effect on both individuals as well as collectives. These values relate to the more general values that have a purpose out- side of the cultural or natural event itself. Extrinsic values can be divided into social values and economic values, for example: enrichment of human beings, improved communication skills or making money out of culture or natur! e. Therefore we see how values are always related to individuals, which makes the individuals the key figures in the process of the creation of public value. The availability of cultural and natural products and activities is crucial in this process. In this thesis the availability of cultural objects is called the pluriformity; the availability of natural objects is called biodiversity. However, the function of the government in relation to availability is less obvious. In this thesis the presumption is made that when a government attaches importance to pluriformity or biodiversity, this gov- ernment will act as a guardian of culture and nature. From that point of view the function of the government is mainly considered to be a protection against a lack of public value in the fields of culture and nature. Both the cultural sector and the nature sector have to be appreciated in view of eco- nomic values as well as non-economic values. From both perspectives, both culture and nature create public value for society. The comparative study to the public val- ues of culture and nature has yielded that there are a lot of similarities between cul- ture and nature, as well as the expected differences. If the public value of nature had not been included in this research, it probably wouldn’t have been so obvious that the public value of culture is mainly based on extrinsic values. The other way around, researching the value of culture has yielded that the analyzed nature policy document mainly is based on economic values. It became clear that a public values- based scorecard is applicable on the analyses of policies about both culture and na- ture. Application of this scorecard to policy making could lead to improvements in both sectors.
Faculteit der Letteren