Lombard speech: the effects of noise exposure and being instructed to speak clearly on speech acoustic parameters.

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To find out how acoustic speech parameters change over time spoken, and whether this change differ for Lombard speech when compared to natural speech, data from the RaLoCo corpus is analyzed. Because of the relatively small dataset used, the vowel analysis did not provide adequate information, and is therefore not taken into account for results discussion. The change in acoustic parameters over time and the trial effects of the remaining data are clear and consistent. The parameters from the two conditions grow further apart over time, with Lombard condition speech parameters increasingly moving toward Lombard speech characteristics. Previous literature indicates that a prolonged use of loud or clear speech leads to vocal improvement for trained singers and vocal fatigue in untrained speakers. Taking this into account, the results of this study suggest that speakers can train their speech parameters when they use Lombard, loud, or clear speech, until fatigue sets in. In order to be more definite in these conclusions, a study should be created to separate the definitions and experiments of clear and Lombard speech, as too often these two are used interchangeably. Without this distinction, there is no attributing the results of this study to the Lombard effect specifically.
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