Towards an amended Product-Service System typology

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Nowadays, more and more companies are adding services to a product to gain a competitive ground. This is called 'servitization'. The additional value of servitization is taken from multiple aspects which can be narrowed down into financial, strategic, marketing, and sustainable incentives. People seem to attach less value to the ownership of goods, which has resulted in the concept of Product-Service System (PSS). A PSS is the combination of tangible products and intangible services in order to fulfil the customers’ needs. Using the initial typology of Tukker (2004) in the form of a conceptualization of PSS, this research presents an amended PSS typology with three main elements. These elements are (1) the three spectra; product, PSS and service, (2) the PSS pathways and (3) the PSS orientations. The amended PSS typology is validated and illustrated through the insertion of Servitization Business Models, of which the definition is as follows; “A Servitization Business Model consists of a service-centric business model, in which multiple values are created due to implementing servitization.” After validating the amended PSS typology, the following five PSS orientations are included: (1) integration oriented PSS, (2) product oriented PSS, (3) service oriented PSS, (4) use oriented PSS and (5) result oriented PSS. The amended PSS typology additionally introduces PSS pathways; servitization, deservitization, servitization of products and productization of services within the conceptualization. Furthermore, it involves other spectrums, namely 'pure product' and 'pure service', besides the PSS spectrum in order to determine the position of PSS.
Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen