Towards good governance in the Indian pharmaceutical sector

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The Indian pharmaceutical industry has grown into a highly lucrative sector ever since the 1970s, however, the costs of cheap drugs manufacturing are borne by the communities living in the vicinity of pharmaceutical companies, who are left exceedingly vulnerable to the harmful impacts of pharmaceutical pollution in their environment. This thesis argues that the implementation of good governance in the Indian pharmaceutical sector has the potential to account for responsible and sustainable drugs production, without damaging the society and environment in the process. However, there are at least two fundamental challenges to implementing good governance in India. These are poor capacity and motivation on the part of civil servants and institutions in charge of governance. These challenges must be taken into consideration in order to develop a framework for implementing good governance. There are also opportunities for alleviating these challenges. For example, in a highly centralized structure as India, decentralization of power would allow local institutions to have more autonomy in managing their affairs, and make decisions tailored to the needs of the communities they serve, as well as enforce them more effectively and efficiently. Another factor is the pressure that international community can exert. If countries that receive Indian made drugs demand strict abidance with environmental regulations, companies will have to account for the waste from their manufacturing facilities. These are the potential challenges and opportunities for good governance in India, which this thesis has found. The literature on good governance is strongly influenced by expanding on its principles (e.g., accountability, transparency, responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, etc.), and does not sufficiently account for the conditions necessary for good governance. Therefore, this thesis fills this gap and develops a framework that is considerate of the conditions necessary for good governance to be implemented
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